4th International Search and Rescue Conference (ISAR 2014) 2 of 2

by OldSailor on July 3, 2014

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4th “International Search and Rescue” Conference (ISAR 2014) with the theme “Transforming Search And Rescue Performance” was hosted at Royale Chulan Hotel, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on 17th, 18th and 19th June 2014. Day 1 proceeding are available here. Here is the Day 2 proceedings:

Day 2 – 18th June 2014:

Plenary Session 4: Logistic Aspects of SAR

Topics discussed and the Chairman, Speakers are:

  • Chairman: Datuk First Admiral (Retd) Subramaniam Raman RMN, Malaysia.
  • Tribal Skills Yet Technological Driven SAR Operation – Yolanda Experience: by Major (Retd) Dr Ted Esguerra, Philippines Coast Guard.
  • Medical Humanitarian Mission for Community: by Datuk Dr Mohamed Alwi Abdul Rahman, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Empowering SAR Resources to Support a SAR Mission in Indonesia: by Colonel Agus, BASARNAS, Indonesia.

4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_41

Tribal Skills Yet Technological Driven SAR Operation – Yolanda Experience

  • Typhoon Haiyan
    • 4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_42On November 8, Typhoon Haiyan—known as Yolanda in the Philippines—made landfall in the central Philippines, bringing strong winds and heavy rains that have resulted in flooding, landslides, and widespread damage.
    • Statistics: 14.1 Million people affected; 1.1 million of houses were destroyed; 4.1 million of people were displaced; 6,300 dead; 1,785 missing; 28,689 injured; 5.6 million of people require food assistance.
    • All basic services were down – Electric lines, health svcs infra, police (peace and order svcs), transport (air, land, sea), public works, communications, Road lines and Airport Control are 90% destroyed/non-operational.
    • All hands response post landfall: Government units, Military Units, NGO’s, Volunteers, and international teams (23 countries).
  • The Gaps Seen
    • Fire fighters doing Water operations.
    • EMS teams doing technical rescue operations.
    • Soldiers doing delicate Rescue operations.
    • Civilian Rescue teams in the hostile zones.
    • ‘City-based’ responders deployed to the mountains, high seas, austere environment.
    • ‘Hospital-based’ treatment paradigms ONLY.
    • No definite national database of ALL responders and respective skills.
    • No tribal skills and not much technology of rescue teams.
  • The Step Back (before Haiyan)
    • Philippines is disaster prone (top 3 in the whole world; top 9 as most vulnerable to climate change).
    • Need for a national Rescue Team.
    • Multi-role, all-terrain, all-weather RDANA (Rapid Disaster Assistance [RRT] & Needs Assessment [RAT]) Type of team.
    • Initially, to be created ASAP through volunteerism and not subject to bureaucratic delays.
    • Ladderized training from basic to advanced level.
    • ‘last man standing’ in concept (self contained; single, linear command).
  • Wilderness Search And Rescue (WiSAR) Team: is an Experimental Team which is skilled on
    • 40% survival-security-safety.
    • 30% medical response.
    • 10% disaster management.
    • 20% technical rescue.
  • Ditch Medicine
    • Shelter.
    • Food and Water.
    • Weather Tracking.
    • Fire – Building.
    • Austere Medicine.
    • ‘McGYVER’ Style.
  • Subjects in the WiSAR Training
    • 4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_43Basic Life Support.
    • Basic Trauma Life Support.
    • Austere Medicine.
    • Water Rescue.
    • Rope Rescue.
    • Mountain Rescue Operations.
    • Navigation.
    • Survival.
    • Cultural Studies.
    • Combat Medicine.
    • Communication.
    • Helicopter Ground Signaling.
    • SAR Indoctrination.
    • SAR Principles.
    • Outdoors Leadership.
    • Wilderness Immersion.
  • Operational Medicine
    • Emergency Medicine.
    • Emergency Medical Science (EMS)
    • Wilderness Medicine.
    • Expedition Medicine.
    • Combat Medicine.
    • Naval Medicine.
    • Aviation Medicine.
    • Disaster Medicine.
    • Travel Medicine.
  • Scope of WiSAR
    • Mountain SAR.
    • Water SAR.
    • Combat SAR.
    • Landslide SAR.
    • Post – Earthquake SAR.
    • Post – Hurricane SAR.
    • Post – Tsunami/Storm Surge SAR.
    • Air Rescue Operations.
    • K9 SAR Operations.
  • Scope of Wilderness Medicine
    • 4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_44S/P Conflict/War Operations.
    • Flood SAR.
    • Total Collapse.
    • Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosive CBRNE ?
  • Medical Concepts of WiSAR
    • Survival Medicine.
    • Ditch Medicine.
    • 3rd World Medicine.
    • Austere Medicine.
    • The End of the World As We Know It (TEOTWAWKI) Medicine.
    • ‘Where There is No Doctor…’
    • ‘Where There is No Dentist…’
  • Difference Urban SAR
    • Environment: Partly controlled, partly known, changeable.
    • Patient: Unknown, sometimes requests care.
    • Equipage: Adequate.
    • Security: Usually Safe.
    • Personnel: Educated, basic to advanced.
    • Evacuation: Built into system.
    • EMS: Almost always.
  • Difference WiSAR
    • Environment: Uncontrolled, partly known, changeable.
    • Patient: Unknown, sometimes requests care.
    • Equipage: Rudimentary.
    • Security: Questionable.
    • Personnel: Variable Education, basic to advanced.
    • Evacuation: Major Concern.
    • EMS: Uncommon.
  • WiSAR Every Day Carry (EDC) Pack
    • 4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_45Multi-tool and Jungle knife/bolo.
    • Bottled Water /Hydration bag, DOGBONE.
    • Signaling / Communication kit (cellphone w/ camera, penlight, fire starter/lighter, whistle, AM/FM portable radio, mirror, pentel pen wrapped with duct tape).
    • First Aid Kit (with betadine), med kit (paracetamol, for cough, colds, LBM, gastritis, allergy, etc.,).
    • Chocolate, etc.,
    • Apparel kit (malong, sandal, upper/lower quick dry, poncho).
    • Paracord (4 meters long, 7-9mm thick).
    • Toiletry kit (toothbrush, paste, antifungal shampoo, Perla soap, Off lotion, wet wipes, tissue, earbuds, sunscreen).
    • Ziploc kit (Rubber band, Cash, ID’s, passport, List of Family Contact info, duct tape, garbage plastic bag).
  • Addendum
    • Helicopter Ground Control.
    • Technical Rescue Operation.
    • Linguistics.
    • Ethnography.
    • Climate Change Issues.
    • Unorthodox Ways.
    • “What You Dream & Swear…”
  • WiSAR Operative Strategies
    • Attitude. 4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_46
    • Physiologically Prepared.
    • Security & Safety components (PPE’s).
    • Life Support Skills.
    • Ropemanship Skills.
    • Water Operations Skills.
    • Right tools.
    • Navigational Skills.
    • Water & Food – Provision & Acquisition.
    • Shelter.
  • WiSAR Configuration
    • Attitude – Aptitude; Will – Skill.
    • Prepare Physically, Mentally, Psychologically, Physiologically, Spiritually, Culturally.
    • 7S’s and 7T’s.
    • Encompasses the World of Arts, Philosophy, Faith, Physical, Science.
  • Requirement
    • Physically & Mentally Fit.4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_47
    • Highly Motivated & Team Worker.
    • Vocation Over Profession.
    • Passion & Perfection.
    • High Sense of Security & Survival.
    • More of Results than Sustained Paper Works.
    • Godly/Goodly & Humanitarian.
    • “Way of Life”
  • Objectives Met
    • Advisory  to LGU as Needed.
    • Sustained Operations Despite Cut Supply Lines.
    • Protracted Approach in Doing Interventions.
    • Austere Medicine (Tribal skills).
    • Do Most with Less.
    • Lasted Long Despite No Support from Larger Entities.

Medical Humanitarian Mission for Community

  • 4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_48The One Thing that We Learn from History is that We Never Learn from History.
  • Natural and Environmental Disasters are Worldwide Distributed Phenomena.
  • Global Concepts of Emergency Planning and Disaster Management
    • Incident Command System and logistic infrastructure.
    • Emergency Management Service and Mental Health Care.
    • Body Identification, Recovery and Disposal.
    • Risk Assessment and Contingency Planning.
    • Ethics, Mitigation and Medico-Legal Intervention.
    • Mental Health Care and PTSD.
    • Risk Communication and Media Management.
    • CBRNE.
  • EMS Preparedness – where are we in 2014 ?
    • Elements of Preparedness & Consequent Management (A2P2R2) concept.
    • Global Awareness-Social Media/CBRNE.
    • Capacity and Capability building.
    • Public Health Intervention.
    • Research Development.
    • Political Will/ Leadership/Lesson Learnt.4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_49
  • Incident Command & Control Challenges
    • Emergency Relief Logistics: Emergency relief logistics is the processes and systems involved in mobilizing people, resources, skills and knowledge, to help vulnerable people affected by disaster.
    • Managing Medical Supplies and Food
      • Food.
      • Shelter.
      • Pharmaceuticals.
      • Medical teams.
      • Basic commodities.
      • Medical treatment/outcome.
      • Collaborations openly acknowledged.
  • Challenges in Complex Disaster: Emergency Relief Exercises are Usually Executed in Complex Environments due to
    • Dependence on voluntary contributions.
    • Involvement of many stakeholders.
    • High levels of uncertainty (demand,supplies,assessment).
    • Unsolicited donations.
    • Degraded infrastructure and no established logistics community.
    • Delivery constraints due to Government or military involvement.
    • Politically unstable environment.
  • Pakistan – Health Impacts of Floods  4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_50
    • The immediate health impacts are drowning, injuries, hypothermia, and animal bites.
    • Health risks in the evacuation of patients, loss of Health workers and infrastructure including drugs and supplies.
    • In the medium-term, infected wounds, complications of injury, poisoning, poor mental health, communicable diseases, and starvation.
    • In the long-term, chronic disease, disability, poor mental health, and malnutrition.
  • Managing Diseases, Outbreaks in Field Hospital/Refugees Camp
    • Consume clean water or properly boiled water.
    • Eat clean and well cooked food.
    • Use insect repellant.
    • Use protective clothing to prevent contamination and injuries.
    • Prevent from working in dirty and contaminated environment for too long especially muddy areas.
    • Manage all injuries and wound properly, do not take it lightly.
    • Mental fatigue, lack of sleep and exhaustion may predispose you to infections and injury.
  • Risk Communication and Crisis Management
    • Community and Organizations
      • Unprepared and poor awareness.
      • Refuse to evacuate to shelter area.
      • Public could not understand the meaning of disaster terminology.
      • Culture of acceptance-Disaster tolerance, way of life.
      • Poverty and Education limitations.
    • Public Perceptions4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_51
      • Delay in response.
      • Public Trust.
      • Media sensations.
      • EMS Shortfall.
      • Political and Social Diversion.
  • Managing News, Media and Reporters: Information Distribution
    • Multi national interpreters (volunteers).
    • Official procedure in sending bodies.
    • Traveling w/o documents.
    • Local contacts for foreign visitors.
    • List of missing and dead on web-site.
    • Human right protest.
  • Managing Psychological Problems: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
    • Acute stress disorder.
    • Post-traumatic stress disorder.
    • Generalized anxiety disorder.
    • Panic disorder.
    • Adjustment disorder.
    • Major depression.
    • Substance-related disorder.4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_52
    • Brief psychotic disorder.
    • Somatoform disorder.
    • Dissociative disorder.
    • Personality disorder.
  • Conclusion
    • Paradigm change in approaches in Natural Disaster Contingency Plan both short term and long term approach.
    • Emphasize more on Early Warning System, Public Education.
    • Lesson learnt from the Past Experience and Transformations.
    • New Innovations in Technology, Infrastructure and Response to global disaster response, more on SAR operation.
    • International Partnership, Friendship, Collaborations and Training.
    • More budget, Policy Research and Development in responds to Natural Disaster, Mass Casualty Management and Humanitarian Missions.

Empowering SAR Resources to Support a SAR Mission in Indonesia

  • SAR: The efforts to do searching and rescuing a life in distress in the most rapid, precise and safe manners.
  • Philosophy of SAR: LAST(Locate, Access, Stabilize, Transport)4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_53
    • Locate: Locate survivor’s position
      • Collecting and verifying distress information (location, nature of distress, POB, etc).
      • Developing a SAR plan (search area, search pattern, SAR assets, rescue method, etc)
    • Access: The efforts to reach survivor’s position
      • Air Dropping.
      • Rappelling technique.
      • Ascending & descending (vertical rescue).
      • Inland vehicles.
      • Ships/Rescue Boat.
      • Rubber Boat.
    • Stabilize
      • Stabilize a survivor in accordance with the injury suffered – medical first response.
      • The steps taken by a Rescuer: Scene size-up, Treatment to injury.
      • Survivor Immobilizing/packing.
    • Transport (Evacuate):
      • Aimed to obtain further medical treatment.
      • Moving survivor from the danger to the safe place.
      • The method to transport in accordance with survivor’s condition: Inland vehicles, Medevac by ship or chopper.
  • SAR Skills Needed4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_54
    • Search Skill
      • Locating search area.
      • Searching by communication devices.
      • Sea and or land navigation.
      • SAR observer.
    • Survival/Support Skill
      • Sea/jungle Survival.
      • SAR Communication.
      • Vertical rescue technique.
      • Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA).
      • Helicopter rescue.
    • Rescue Skill
      • Extrication.
      • Medical first responder.
      • Evacuation.
  • The National SAR Agency of Indonesia (BASARNAS)
    • Task and Duty
      • Formulating policy on national SAR services.
      • Coordination and cooperation on empowering in-country SAR resources.
      • Conducting SAR operation on emergency situation.
    • Scope of Task: To Conduct SAR Operation on4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_55
      • Distress situation in civil aviation.
      • Distress situation in maritime.
      • Natural disasters (earthquake, tsunami, flood, landslide, etc).
      • Other emergency situation.
    • SAR Assets
      • Helicopter : 8 Units (Short and medium Range).
      • Rescue Truck : 28 Units.
      • Rescue Car : 90 Units.
      • Truck : 96 Units.
      • Ambulance : 7 Units.
      • Rescue Boat : 25 Units (12 M, 28 M, 36 M, 40 M, 59 M).
      • Rigid Inflatable Boat : 46 Unit (5.4 M, 8.5 M, 11.4 M, 12 M).
      • Integrated Radio Based Communication system.
      • Cospas-Sarsat Satellite System.
    • Operational Policy
      • Improve and maintain internal capabilities regularly and continuously – SAR course, training and exercise, SOPs.
      • Rescue Team Standby on call 24 hours/day.
      • Mobilize SAR resource including external Rescue Team, if needed.
      • Apply a community-based SAR concept – by involving the elements of community with SAR capabilities in SAR activities, in particular, in a SAR operation.
  • SAR Resources4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_56
    • Rescuer.
    • SAR Facilities.
    • Logistics.
    • Lack/Gap in resources: To be filled with Community based SAR.
  • Empowering SAR Resource by Community – Based SAR Strategy
    • Establish a local SAR Forum in cooperation with local government: invite all elements of community with SAR capabilities to join a forum.
    • Provide SAR training and exercise to the volunteers, mainly, in the disaster prone area to enhance preparedness.
    • Promoting SAR at early age – program “SAR Goes to School”.
    • Establish information network with local emergency response unit.
  • Rescuer
    • Internal Rescuer: BASARNAS.
    • External Rescuer: Volunteers (Basarnas train and certify volunteers for assisting a SAR operation).
    • Military & Police.
  • Skills Needed by Volunteers.
    • SAR Administration.
    • SAR Technical skills (water rescue, jungle rescue, vertical rescue, etc).
    • Medical skill.
    • Foreign languages.
  • Individual Requirement to be a Certified Volunteer
    • At least 18 years old.
    • Physically and mentally healthy.
    • Posses SAR knowledge and skills.
    • Recommended by his/her organization.
  • Volunteer’s Roles in SAR
    • When there is no SAR operation
      • Standby on call.
      • SAR training and exercise.
      • Information exchange.
    • When there is a SAR operation4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_57
      • Distress information exchange (location, victim, environment condition).
      • Doing search and rescue.
      • Provide communication network – radio communication.
      • Manage field command post.
      • Medical treatment.
      • Psychological counseling.
  • Volunteers Rights
    • A volunteer is entitled to receive
      • SAR training and course.
      • Access to provide SAR assistance.
      • ID card and Certificate.
      • Legal protection.
  • Conclusion
    • As the member of international community, Indonesia is bound to provide SAR services in its SAR Region that belongs to the National SAR Agency’s responsibility (BASARNAS).
    • To make SAR operation effective, BASARNAS applies a community-based SAR strategy, a strategy that involves all the elements of community with SAR capabilities to be a volunteer in a SAR operation.
    • A community-based SAR strategy can be an alternate solution for anticipating lack of SAR resources.

Plenary Session 5: Country Perspectives

Topics discussed and the Chairman, Speakers are:

  • Chairman: Dato’ Rear Admiral (Retd) S Gunaselan RMN, Malaysia.
  • Transforming Search & Rescue Performance: by Brooke Archbold, Chairman, New Zealand Coast Guard, and Trustee, International Maritime Rescue Federation, New Zealand.
  • Search & Rescue – Indian Perspective: by Dr M Jayaraman, Additional Commissioner, Disaster Management & Mitigation, Government of Tamil Nadu, India.
  • Promote the Development of Maritime SAR in Asia – Pacific Region: Mr Lu Dingliang, Director General Donghai Rescue Bureau, People’s Republic of China.

4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_58

Transforming Search & Rescue Performance

  • 4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_59Kaizen: IMRF is a firm believer in Kaizen, ‘continual improvement’ ; IMRF has identified and implements programs that will make a difference; some may improve performance, others may transform performance.
  • IMRF is engaged in ‘Transforming Search & Rescue Performance’ through
    • Global Sharing
      • Members assisting Members.
      • Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI), Royal Netherlands Sea Rescue Institution (Dutch:Koninklijke Nederlandse Redding Maatschappij, abbreviated: KNRM), German Society for Sea Rescue in German –DGzRS), Swedish Sea Rescue Society (SSRS), Uruguay Sea Rescue Service (ADES) providing equipment to fledging organizations.
      • Online SAR Training Program.
    • Up – skilling
      • Practical SAR Training on water training in Uruguay.
      • Skill Specific Training – On scene Coordinator’s Course at IMRF’s Asia Pacific Regional Centre (APRC).
    • Regional Cooperation: Illegal Immigrant SAR – Malta and Italy Cooperation.
    • Regional Relationships: SAR Crew Exchange – European Maritime Crew Exchange Program.
    • Filling the Gaps: Developing SAR Capability – The Baltic, The Pacific Islands, Africa.
    • Focused Programs: Mass Rescue, Rescue Boat Code 4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_60
    • Representation
      • International Maritime Organization (IMO): Consultative Status, SAR Development Group.
      • Advocacy: National Representation.
    • Regional Coordination: Regional MRCC – North & West Africa Maritime SAR Regional Co-ordination Centre.
    • Communications: Newsletter, Advisory Service, Web Page, Online Library.
  • Conclusion:
    • Worldwide SAR delivery is not consistent.
    • Huge variances, especially between the Developed and the Developing Countries.
    • Globally there are enormous differences in needs, politics, conditions, issues, people, culture, structure, organizations.

Promote the Development of Maritime SAR in Asia – Pacific Region

  • IMRF Global Development – Asia Pacific Regional Centre (APRC)
    • World Health Organization’s global statistics show that approximately 380,000 people die through drowning each year, with almost half of these occurring within the Asia-Pacific Region.
    • Incidents of massive casualties at sea took place quite frequently in Asia Pacific region in the past decades, thousands of lives lost on commercial vessels every year.
    • Many of the deaths are preventable or able to be rescued if SAR service is improved.4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_61
    • The first IMRF Regional Office (APRC) at Shanghai was launched in 2012 and registered in May 2014.
  • APRC: Purpose/Objectives: To promote IMRF profile and influences in the Asia-Pacific Region, attracting more countries/states and territories to join the IMRF family and improving the rescue capabilities at all levels of the whole region.
    • Recruiting new IMRF members.
    • Raising funds to support key projects.
    • Facilitating operational SAR training.
    • Promoting regional cooperation and coordination.
    • Providing a platform for SAR information sharing.
    • Promoting cooperation with maritime universities.
  • APRC Key Projects
    • Regional Development Meeting:
      • 1st Asia Pacific Regional Meeting was held in Hong Kong on 10th September 2013.
      • Regional Development meetings are held to facilitate the transfer of knowledge across borders without politics to reduce the loss of life in the world’s waters.
    • Maritime SAR Training Course:
      • Training has paid attention to maritime SAR Emergency Management and Research on maritime rescue skills.
      • The attendees could obtain the maritime SAR theoretical knowledge and On-Scene Co-coordinator skills, involving the on-site command and disposal of the emergency from the analysis of typical cases and maritime distress communication.
    • Mass Rescue Operations (MRO):
      • Providing an international focus on MRO of all kinds.
      • Providing forums for discussion and debate on MRO.
      • Identifying specific problems that need addressing.
      • Building a database of resources for all to use.
    • Assistant SAR Project:
      • Pooling experiences and resources in cost-effective projects.
      • Developing new practices, technologies and system for the benefit of all.
  • Areas to be considered in Maritime Safety for Asia – Pacific Region:4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_62
    • Awareness and responsibility.
    • Safety standards and regulations.
    • Improvement in maritime SAR system.
    • Regional SAR Cooperation.
  • Suggestions for Development of Regional SAR: To all the maritime SAR organizations in Asia Pacific
    • Develop International Maritime Humanitarianism.
    • Fulfill International Maritime SAR Conventions.
    • Strengthen Regional Exchange and Cooperation.
    • Join IMRF Asia-Pacific Regional Centre.
  • Invitation: 8th China International Rescue and Salvage Conference & 2nd IMRF Asia Pacific Regional Meeting at Shanghai, China on 18th -19th September 2014.
  • Being Together To Be Stronger: IMRF Asia-Pacific Regional Centre will greatly enhance IMRF capability to communicate with and to assist maritime rescue organizations throughout this busy region.

Search & Rescue – Indian Perspective

  • Indian Subcontinent: among the world’s most disaster prone areas
    • 65% of land vulnerable to Earthquakes. 4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_63
    • 8% of land vulnerable to Cyclones.
    • 5% of land vulnerable to Floods.
    • More than 1 million houses damaged annually plus human, social, other losses.
  • Developments in Disaster Management:
    • High Powered Committee was set up in August 1999.
    • Responsibility was with Agriculture Ministry until 2001.
    • Transferred to Ministry of Home Affairs in June 2002.
    • National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) was established on 28th September 2005.
    • Disaster Management was also included in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution.
    • Disaster Management Act came into force on 23 December 2005.
  • Changes in Disaster Management in India
    • Paradigm Shift: Response Centric to Holistic & Integrated Approach.
    • Backed by: Institutional Framework – Legal Authority.
    • Supported by: Financial Mechanisms – Creation of Separate Funds.
  • Institutional Framework
    • Disaster Management Structure:
      • NDMA Apex Body with Prime Minister as Chairperson.
      • National Executive Committee: comprises of Secretaries of 14 Ministries and Chief of Integrated Defence staff.
    • National Level:
      • Central Ministries.
      • National Institute of Disaster Management.
      • National Disaster Response Force (NDRF).
    • State Level:
      • SDMA headed by Chief Minister.
      • State Executive Committee (SEC).
    • District Level:
      • DDMA headed by District Magistrate. 4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_64
      • Interface between Government and Public.
  • Response and Rescue by NDRF
    • Composition: 10 Battalions.
    • Tasks:
      • Specialized Response during disasters.
      • Well equipped and trained in SAR.
      • Assist in Community Training and Preparedness.
      • Impart Basic and Operation Level Training to SDRF.
      • Proactive Deployment during impending disaster situations.
      • Liaison, Rehearsals and Mock Drills.
  • Resource and Knowledge Network
    • India Disaster Resource Network (IDRN).
      • Inaugurated on 1st September 2003.
      • Web enabled centralized data base for quick access to resources to minimize response time.
      • Updated every year, at State & District level.
      • 226 items, 69329 records in 545 Districts uploaded.
    • India Disaster Knowledge Network (IDKN)
      • Web portal for knowledge collaboration, maps, networking, emergency contact networking system.
      • Goal – easy to use unified point of access to disaster management, mitigation and response.
      • IDKN is a part of South Asian Disaster Knowledge Network (SADKN).
  • Other Institutional Arrangements
    • Armed Forces.4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_65
    • Central Para Military Forces.
    • State Police Forces and Fire Services.
    • Civil Defence and Home Guards.
    • State Disaster Response Force (SDRF).
    • National Cadet Corps (NCC).
    • National Service Scheme (NSS).
    • Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan (NYKS).
  • Stakeholders’ Participation
    • Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
    • Public Private Partnership (PPP).
    • Media Partnership.
    • Community Training.
    • Disaster Management Education in Schools.

Plenary Session 6: SAR Colloquium

All the participants were divided into four groups for SAR Colloquium.

  • Chairman: Commodore (Retd) S Shekhar, Director, CASTLE, India.4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_66
  • Thought leaders for the Groups and Subjects for Discussion:
    • Group 1 – International Collaboration: Air Commodore Sonny Owemu, Nigerian Air Force, Nigeria.
    • Group 2 – Policies, Procedures, Practices: Dr David Brewster, Australian National University, Australia.
    • Group 3 – Human Interventions: Mr Rob Keating, St John’s Ambulance, New Zealand.
    • Group 4 – Technology Aspects: Dr Rao Tatavarti, Founder & Executive Director, CASTLE, India.
  • Each group discussed the following critical areas with respect to their individual domain:
    • Current knowledge on the subject.
    • Adequacy and awareness.
    • Implementation.
    • Lessons learnt.
    • Road map for the future.
  • Here is Group 4’s Colloquium Notes on Technology Aspects:
    • A multinational team of 12 participants discussed and deliberated on the technological aspects of the case study presented with all pertinent facts and has reached the consensus that there is more information missing or purposefully not divulged then the facts given to the team for discussion and deliberation.
    • This is based on the fact that the missing flight in question is the presidential aircraft, a high value target – for which customarily all redundant measures vis-à-vis the security and technical failures, would be automatically ensured.4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_67
    • Nevertheless, the deliberations focused on the various critical areas and reached the following consensus which is summarized under the five categories as desired by the conveners of the colloquium.
    • Current Knowledge on the Subject:
      • The technologies were categorized into the following sub domains to discuss and deliberate about the current knowledge of the subject:
        • Sensors on targets (GPS / Environmental Sensors / Communication Sensors / Imaging Sensors / Audio recording sensors).
        • Sensors on Ground (Communication / Tracking Sensors).
        • Sensors on board Satellites (Surveillance, Communication).
        • Target Technologies (Engine Characteristics, Sensors, Communications).
        • Archival/Transmission Technologies to be operated at higher sampling frequencies.
        • Communication Transponders transmitting data @1 Hz.
      • Given the fact that the flight in question is a President’s aircraft (it is presumed that the flight should be having the latest technologies), it is concluded that the current knowledge on the subject is quite adequate and sufficiently failsafe. Even otherwise the state of art technologies which are currently in vogue for even commercial aircrafts are also adequate and effective.
    • Adequacy and Awareness:
      • There are a number of more sophisticated and effective technologies Surveillance Technologies which are currently available with various agencies, especially the defence technologies – which can be effectively integrated with the current technologies available with civilian aircrafts for enhancing the security and effectiveness from a SAR prevention perspective.
      • Surveillance Technologies – Imaging using different sensors (CCD, Thermal, Radiometer & SAR sensors) which can be used for localization of targets, even in adverse conditions needs to be inducted into the civilian aircrafts. 4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_68
      • Need for communication of attitude information, and CCD video imagery along with audio recording from cabin to be transmitted automatically with a good sampling frequency (say at a burst rate of 1 Hz after data compression) to the ground station and archived therein.
      • More redundant communication channels to be inducted on board the aircraft.
      • Need for increasing the storage capacities of archival information at ground control stations and on board aircrafts.
      • Transfer of technical information – there is an imperative need for awareness level enhancement vis-à-vis the various coordinating agencies and stake holders.
    • Implementation:
      • Within one minutes after the targets’ missing or any disaster an SOS should be sent to all earth orbiting satellites in the vicinity for launching/activating imagery sensors for immediate data recording and transmission to earth stations for further analysis/processing and information extraction.
      • Need to immediately launch the standard operating procedure for search and ask for information from ships of opportunity, public at large, earth stations of various forms, ham operators, air traffic controllers etc.4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_69
      • Appropriate flares and dyes to be automatically released at the time of crash/disaster.
      • Ensure that emergency transponders cannot be tampered with and also communicate pertinent information with a burst frequency @ 1 Hz (containing video, audio, target health information and target attitude information) automatically to ground stations.
      • Ensure more longevity of satellite archived information by satellite sensors of opportunity.
    • Lessons Learnt: Although technology is adequate, implementation of new procedures and practices is required.
    • Future Road Map:
      • Sharing of technology information related to surveillance and communication across different stake holders.
      • Need to increase the power of signal transmission of emergency transponders so that the range of detection is enhanced.
      • Need to Increase the longevity and robustness of the transponders.

 

Valedictory Session:

  • The Valedictory session was chaired by Mr Brooke Archbold, Chairman, New Zealand Coast Guard, and Trustee, International Maritime Rescue Federation.
  • The findings of the various groups at the SAR Colloquium were presented at the Valedictory session.

ISAR 2014 Best Speaker Award: The award for the “Best speaker of ISAR 2014”was given to Major Ted Esquerra, Philippines Coast Guard.

Venue for ISAR 2015:

  • It was unanimously agreed that the next edition of the conference, ISAR 2015, will be held at Chennai, India.
  • Accordingly the ISAR 2015 Banner was handed over ceremoniously to Dr V Jayaraman, IAS, Additional Commissioner, Department of Disaster Management and Mitigation, Government of Tamil Nadu, India.

4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_70

Conclusion:

  • ISAR 2014, was formally brought to a close by Major Murali Bhaskaran, who proposed a vote of thanks to all those who had contributed to the unparalleled success of this conference.
  • During the two days of intense deliberations by more than 125 delegates from 12 countries, the accent, in accordance with the theme of ISAR 2014, was on “Transforming Search and Rescue performance”. The continuous thread which ran through all plenary sessions was that the key to transforming SAR performance was the availability of a competent, committed and qualified human resource who could implement existing policies and procedures, in a spirit of international collaboration, using the numerous technologies available.
  • The MH 370 incident had indeed brought together numerous nations deploying the latest technological assets, but it was evident that this had materialized as a reactive measure to a perceived international tragedy.
  • While bilateral and multi lateral agreements and arrangements existed for joint SAR exercises, many lacunae understandably existed while working together on an actual SAR operation following a disaster of this magnitude.
  • Even as early as in 2011, during the inaugural ISAR conference, SAR being multi disciplinary, Human skills such as competence, communication, commitment, leadership, teamwork etc play a crucial role, and constant training is required to provide and update these skills.
  • And as brought out by Tan Sri Thanabalasingham in his inaugural address, while for long Search and Rescue has been considered the “tail” of the Disaster Management “dog”, the time has come for the “tail” to start wagging independently.

Serious consideration therefore needs to be given to the establishment of an International Institute of Search And Rescue Studies, which will offer structured programs, both academic as well as vocational in various disciplines of the Search and Rescue domain.

Now looking forward to ISAR 2015 to be held at Chennai, India.

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