4th International Search and Rescue Conference (ISAR 2014) 1 of 2

by OldSailor on June 30, 2014


4th “International Search and Rescue” Conference (ISAR 2014) with the theme “Transforming Search And Rescue Performance” was hosted at Royale Chulan Hotel, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on 17th, 18th and 19th June 2014. 4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_1

The conference was organised by Global SAR Resources Sdn. Bhd. More than 120 delegates from 12 countries participated in the two day conference. It may be noted that Malaysia Airlines Flight MH 370 disappeared after taking off from Kuala Lumpur on 8th March. It is yet to be located despite search operations by many countries. This emphasizes the need to further refine Search & Rescue procedures globally.

It may be recalled that ISAR 2011 (First Edition), ISAR 2012 (with the theme ‘Survival Matters’) were held at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and ISAR 2013 (with the theme ‘Interoperability – the Key to Survival) was held at Chennai, India.

The highlights of ISAR 2014:

  • Day 1 – 17th June, 2014:
    • Inaugural Session followed by Exhibition Tour.
    • Plenary Session I: International Collaboration in SAR.
    • Plenary Session II: Technology Advancements in SAR.
    • Plenary Session III: Human interventions in SAR.
  • Day 2 – 18th June, 2014:
    • Plenary Session IV: Logistic Aspects of SAR.
    • Plenary Session V: Country Prospectives.
    • Plenary Session VI: SAR Colloquium.
    • Valedictory Session.
  • Day 3 – 19th June, 2014: City Tour and Visits.

Inaugural session:

Welcome Address by Maj (Retd) Murali Bhaskaran, Founder and CEO, Global SAR Resources Sdn. Bhd.


Theme Address by Dr Muzaffar Ahmad, Member, National Disaster Management Authority, India.


Key Note Address by Dato’ Pehlawan Lieutenant General Dr William Stevenson, CEO, Malaysian Institute of Defence and Strategy (MIDAS).


Inaugural Address by Tan Sri Rear Admiral (Retd) K Thanabalasingham, First Malaysian Chief of the Royal Malaysian Navy.


Release of report of ISAR 2013, conducted in Chennai, India, on 3rd, 4th, 5th October 2013.


Vote of Thanks by Commodore (Retd) S Shekhar, Founder Director, Centre for Advancement of Science, Technology, Law and Engineering (CASTLE) India.


Thereafter 2 minutes silence was observed in memory of crew and passengers of Malaysia Flight MH 370.

Exhibition Stalls: Here are some photographs.




Plenary Session 1: International Collaboration in SAR

Topics discussed and the Chairman, Speakers are:

  • Chairman: Commodore (Retd) S Shekhar, Director, CASTLE, India.
  • IMRF’s Role in Transforming Search & Rescue Performance: by Brooke Archbold, Chairman, New Zealand Coast Guard, and Trustee, International Maritime Rescue Federation (IMRF), New Zealand.
  • Enhancing the Search & Rescue Architecture: by Captain Martin A Sebastian RMN, Malaysian Institute of Maritime Affairs, Malaysia.
  • Greater International Cooperation in Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) and Search & Rescue: by Dr David Brewster, Australian National University, Australia.
  • Transforming Development of China Rescue Salvage: by Mr Lu Dingliang, Director General Donghai Rescue Bureau, People’s Republic of China.


IMRF’s Role in Transforming Search & Rescue Performance

Mass Rescue Operations (MRO):

  • There is a need for immediate response to large number of persons in distress to evacuate to safe place and provide medical aid, food, shelter as the capabilities available with SAR authorities are inadequate. 4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_12
  • Examples of MRO: passenger ship accidents, offshore industrial accidents, aircrafts ditching into sea, migrants in unseaworthy vessels, rescue by sea of people from land based accidents.
  • IMRF fulfills the capability gap in SAR operations.
  • MRO Project aims to raise MRO awareness and share experience by
    • Providing an international focus on maritime rescue operations of all kinds cited as examples of MRO.
    • Providing a forum for discussion by conducting conferences, workshops.
    • Identifying specific problems to solve further by research and development.
    • Identifying potential amendments needed for incorporating in international regulation and guidance.
    • Compiling and setting up a quick access, web based, reference library with practical data; this is expected to be completed by mid 2015.
  • IMRF aims to improve performance by: First Program for Mass Casualty Recovery; by Multi Bridge Mass Rescue Simulation in terms of Casualties, Victims, Area, Available Dedicated SAR Resources, Vessels of Opportunity Availability.
  • Mass Rescue is a low probability event with unpredictable results.
  • Managing MRO is a complex process as it turns out to be an emotional, political issue with serious consequences of all involved.
  • Critical aspects of MRO: handling information flow, involvement of multi lingual/multi mode media, managing numerous relatives of different culture/ethnicity, need for involving top level government agencies, managing international relationship.
  • Success of MRO depends on: Plan, Prepare and Practice.

Enhancing the Search & Rescue Architecture

  • Recent regional SAR incidents such as disappearance of Malaysia Airliner MH 370, sinking of South Korea Ferry Sewol, chemical tanker fire of Japan Tanker Shoyu Maru were analyzed.4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_13
  • Effective SAR: pertains to Timely Response, Save Lives, Save Costs, Save Governments.
  • Harmonizing SAR:
    • Assets/Resources Management:
      • Peace time: assets are to be used to counter crime efforts by gathering/sharing intelligence.
      • Crisis time: requires asset rationalization for timely response.
      • Conflict time: requires optimization of assets.
    • International Level (ICAO/IMO):
      • International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue (IAMSAR) Manual in three volumes of 2013 edition harmonizes IAMSAR procedures, equipment, and terminology internationally.
      • Joint Working Group (JWG) of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and International Maritime Organization (IMO) meets annually to develop provisions regarding new SAR Techniques and procedures where both aeronautical and maritime interests are involved.
      • The 19th Session of JWG was held in 2012 at Hong Kong to focus on Global Plan Initiative on SAR.
      • The 20th Session of JWG was held in 2013 at Amsterdam to focus on proposals to reduce False Distress Alerts.
    • Regional Level:
      • Regional SAR Compliance Overview indicated particular weaknesses in South Asia, Mongolia and the Southwest Pacific areas.
      • Asia/Pacific SAR Capability Matrix Table provided an excellent initial focal point for discussion on SAR matters. 4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_14
      • Asia/Pacific SAR Capability Matrix Table was gaining usage in other parts of the world and provided a powerful document for a SAR manager to present to senior government officials so as to sustain or improve SAR capability and capacity.
      • Asia Pacific SAR Task Force: APSAR TF is working on a two year time frame to deliver a plan to enhance SAR capability within the Asia/Pacific Region.
    • ASEAN Mechanism:
      • ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on Disaster Management and ASEAN-Emergency Rapid Assessment Team could be expanded to specialize in coordinating the regional response to aviation or marine disasters.
      • ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting (ADMM) could address harmonization and standardization.
      • ASEAN Maritime Forum (AMF) could include SAR as one of the concerns.
      • ASEAN Political-Security Community (APSC) Strategy 2015 could put more emphasis on SAR.
    • National Level: Desirability of Joint RCCs (JRCCs)
      • Providing a single 24 hour point of contact instead of two.
      • More exposure and practice for RCC staff in both aviation and maritime SAR.
      • Sharing of SAR experience and workload.
      • Consolidation of Facilities.
      • Reduction in costs and improved coordination and communication.4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_15
  • Conclusion:
    • ASEAN’s SAR response to the MH 370 disaster highlighted both regional solidarity and poor cooperation.
    • The speed at which ASEAN nations mobilized resources to the SAR efforts showed that there was a willingness to work together but there were no mechanisms in place to coordinate a regional response.
    • In future such an incident can happen to any other State with maritime SAR region.
    • Need to plan ahead and learn from the previous incidents.
    • Some common aspects of SAR:
      • Media interest.
      • Foreign governments interest and involvement.
      • Next of kin of the victims (save lives, recover victims).
      • Quick reaction – who to call, effective response.
      • Cooperation – neighboring states, civil/military.
      • SAR Capability Matrix.

Transforming Development of China Rescue Salvage

  • China Rescue Salvage (CRS): China’s predecessor, the People’s Salvage Company of China was founded in Shanghai on 24th August 1951.4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_16
  • Main Responsibilities and Functions of CRS:
    • Emergency Response.
    • Life saving.
    • Property Recovery.
    • Wreck Removal.
    • Pollution Control.
    • Maritime Fire Fighting.
    • Transportation and Ocean Resource Development Support.
    • International Conventions and Bilateral Agreements Implementation.
  • Accidents that triggered the reform of CRS:
    • 24th November 1999: 290 people died in the maritime tragedy of sinking of the RoRo Vessel Dashun.
    • 7th May 2002: 112 people of a passenger aircraft died at sea due to air crash.
  • CRS Equipment:4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_17
    • 71 Rescue Vessels including vessels of 14000 KW/6236 tons displacement, 9000 KW/5141 tons displacement, Rescue Catamarans, Emergency Salvage Floating Crane with lifting capacity ranging from 500 tons to 4000 tons, ‘Hua Hai Long’ Self Navigational Sub-merged Engineering Vessel, ‘Shen Qian Hao’ 300 meter depth saturation diving vessel.
    • 16 Rescue Aircrafts including Helicopter EC225, Helicopter S-76C++
    • 24 Rescue Bases with Lifeboats for rescue.
    • 18 Emergency Response Teams.
  • Basic Characteristics:
    • National Maritime Rescue Team.
    • Dynamic Standby System.
    • Environmental Protection.
    • Rapid Development of Air Rescue.
  • CRS has successfully carried out
    • Rescue of the container ship ‘CMA CGM Florida’.
    • Rescue of Cruise Liner Superstar Gemini.4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_18
    • Land based rescue of people trapped underwater due to floods.
  • After CRS’s reform in 2013 till the end of April 2014, CRS
    • Has carried out 10353 rescue missions.
    • As a result
      • 37940 persons in distress were saved.
      • 2069 distressed vessels were rescued and salvaged.
  • Future Development
    • Improve the rescue and salvage capability to suit increasing size of merchant ships.
    • Improve the emergency response system, rescue equipment and technology.
    • Improve team – building system.
    • Improve capability of Spilled Oil Clean and Property Recovery.

Plenary Session 2: Technology Advancements in SAR

Topics discussed and the Chairman, Speakers are:

  • Chairman: Dato’ Rear Admiral (Retd) S Gunaselan RMN, Malaysia.
  • Space Based Precise Positioning and Reporting Technologies for Search and Rescue and Disaster Management: by Dr Suresh Kibe, Former Programme Director, SATNAV, ISRO, India.
  • Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Search and Rescue Operations: by Dr Richard Dowd, Chairman, International Autonomous Systems, London, UK.
  • Advanced Surveillance Technologies for Search and Rescue: by Dr Rao Tatavarti , Founder & Executive Director, CASTLE, India.
  • Technology Revolutionizing Medical SAR Performance: by Mr Rob Keating, St John’s Ambulance, New Zealand.


Space Based Precise Positioning and Reporting Technologies for Search and Rescue and Disaster Management

  • Satellite Positioning and Position Reporting Technologies:4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_20
    • Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Doppler Principle:
      • Coverage: Global.
      • Frequency Band: 406 MHz up, L band down, ELT, EPIRB Transmits.
      • Infrastructure: LUTs, SAR forces, COSPAS/SARSAT, GNSS/GEOSAR.
      • Merits/Demerits: Very effective, well organized, positioning not real time or very accurate, false alarms.
    • Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Positioning based on 4 satellite ranging:
      • Coverage: Global.
      • Frequency Band: L Band down, Rx does not transmit.
      • Infrastructure: GPS, GLOSNOSS, Galileo, Beidou, Augmentations, Regional Systems IRNSS, QZSS.
      • Merits/Demerits: Very precise real time positioning, ICAO approvals, Most GNSS carry SAR package.
    • Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS – B): 4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_21
      • Coverage: Regional.
      • Frequency Band: L Band.
      • Infrastructure: Mode-S Xponders Aided by GNSS.
      • Merits/Demerits: To be ready by 2020.
    • SATCOMs:
      • Coverage: Global and Regional.
      • Frequency Band: C, Ku, Ka, and L Band.
      • Infrastructure: Used globally.
      • Merits/Demerits: No Positioning/Position Reporting.
  • What is Expected in Future ?
    • Need to integrate all space based technologies in a single device that can be carried by all vessels – Air, Maritime, Land.4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_22
    • Set up a Working Group immediately.
    • Plan the integrated system well ahead.
    • Keep all Gods pleased! (All International bodies, Governments, Law Enforcement Agencies).
    • Find the money to start.
    • It is achievable.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Search and Rescue Operations

  • Unmanned Autonomous Systems (UAS) are a Key Resource to
    • Increase Probability of Mission Success.
    • Improve Search and Rescue Performance.
      • By quicker deployment to SAR site.
      • By taking shorter time to locate and identify persons in distress.
      • By giving better situational awareness to manage and coordinate rescue.4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_23
      • By giving quick delivery of emergency supplies like essential medical supplies, emergency communication equipment.
    • Expand Search and Rescue options.
    • Reduce Costs.
      • Lower cost of platform and command systems.
      • Lower cost of piloting, fuel,maintenance and repair.
    • Increase Efficiencies: in Planning, Operating, Analysis and Management of SAR.
  • Unmanned Autonomous Systems Are Tightly Integrated
    • Platforms.
    • Systems.
    • Communications.
    • Command and Control.
  • Most UAS Platforms, Systems, Communications and Mission Management are based on respective military technology in manned environment.
  • UASs are available in 4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_24
    • Variety of configuration:
      • Compactness: 1 meter wingspan to 10 meter wing span.
      • Range: 210 miles to 1200 miles.
      • Endurance: 4 hours to 24 hours.
      • Payload Capacity: 1.5 lbs to 1890 lbs.
      • Flexible Launch and Recovery: Hand launch, Catapult launch, Wheel launch.
    • Sensors and Cameras:
      • Electro Optical: Daylight cameras.
      • Infra Red: Night view cameras.
      • Thermal: Heat identifying cameras.
      • Mini SAR: Specialized all weather cloud penetration.
      • 3D-Laser Radar: Penetration of porous material.
      • Radar-Sonar.4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_25
      • Hazmat Detector: Instant visibility to the unseen toxic gas and radiation.
      • Sound detector.
    • Communications:
      • Beyond Line of Sight Satellite.
      • Line of Sight Radio.
      • GPS Mobile.
      • AV C2 & Video Data links.
      • Air Advisory Beacon Strobe.
      • GCS/RBT Video Receiver.
    • Command and Control.
      • Onboard Mission Computer.
      • Onboard Auto Pilot.
      • Onboard Avionics Suite. 4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_26
      • Ground Control Station.
    • Operational Scenarios:
      • Discreet operations.
      • Combined National operations.
      • Combined International Operations.
    • Command and Control Scenarios:
      • In Theatre Command Centre.
      • Remote Operations Centre.
      • Central Emergency Centre.

Advanced Surveillance Technologies for Search and Rescue

  • Satellite and Image Processing Technologies4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_27
    • Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a microwave remote sensing technique to take high resolution images of earth surface during day, night (24×7) even in adverse weather/sunlight conditions and sun light.
    • SAR data is used in Oceanography, Glaciology, Agriculture, Geology, Forestry, Deformation monitoring, Environment monitoring, Cartography and Infrastructure planning, Military surveillance and reconnaissance.
    • SAR is widely used in Search and Rescue operations.
    • The technique of interferometric SAR (InSAR) is used in topographic mapping and deformation measurements of earth surface.
    • InSAR Coherence Imagery can be used to do the classification in the area such as water, soil, plants, city etc.,
    • Wake system of a moving ship at sea is used to detect/locate ships at sea by SAR; (Wake system refers to the track left in the water by a moving vessel in the form of turbulent wakes/Kelvin wake/narrow-V wakes/internal wave wakes).
    • Space borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR): Expertise is available with USA, Russia, EU, Germany, Canada, Japan, Italy, India.
    • Airborne SAR: Expertise is available with USA, Germany, Canada, Denmark, France, UK.
  • Photonic Technologies using Vibration and Condition Monitoring are also used in Search and Rescue.

Here are some images.

Imagery by a 4 inch SAR onboard UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle).


Detection of Targets from Space using Satellite Image Processing.


Technology Revolutionizing Medical SAR Performance

  • 4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_30Urban Search And Rescue (USAR): Technology is available to
    • Locate Victims:
      • LifeLocator III+: It is a Ultra Wide Band Radar that allows real time viewing through walls/debris/underground upto 30 feet.
      • Benefits of UWB Radar: Quick deployment, High Mobility, Easy to use.
    • Access Victims:
    • Accurate Diagnosis.
    • Provide Advanced Care: Paramedic IV Detection Glasses (Evena Eyes-On Glasses) – Used to view the veins under the skin to provide first aid in quickest possible time.
    • Evacuate.
  • Paramedical Advances:4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_31
    • Paramedic Electronic Patient Report Form (E – PRF): It is used to link the patient with his/her hospital records faster and with Civil Defence for mass casualty.
    • Paramedic Simulators.
    • Paramedic – Mobile phone applications are available.
  • General Public – Self Help.

Plenary Session 3: Human Interventions in SAR

Topics discussed and the Chairman, Speakers are:

  • Chairman: Datuk First Admiral (Retd) Subramaniam Raman RMN, Malaysia.
  • Search and Rescue – Indian Experience: by Dr M Jayaraman, Additional Commissioner, Disaster Management & Mitigation, Government of Tamil Nadu, India.
  • Being Willing and Able to Response – Keys to Transforming Emergency Response: by Mr Rob Keating, St John’s Ambulance, New Zealand.
  • Medical Support in Aviation Accident and Disaster: by Colonel Dr Mohammad Razin Kamarulzaman, Aviation Medicine Practitioner, Royal Medical Corps, Malaysian Armed Forces, Malaysia.


Search and Rescue – Indian Experience

  • Disasters:4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_33
    • Can not be predicted.
    • Results in sufferings to human beings.
    • Human Touch is needed when providing SAR.
  • Indian Experience: India successfully handled SAR of
    • Tsunami 2004.
    • Cyclone Nisha 2008.
    • Cyclone Thane 2011.
    • Cyclone Neelam 2012.
    • Cyclone Phailin 2013.
    • Andaman Boat Tragedy 2014.
    • Bore Well Rescue 2014.
  • Issues in Search And Rescue:4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_34
    • Trained and skilled Manpower.
    • Coordination of Stakeholders and Departments.
    • Communication.
    • Data base Management.
    • State of Art Equipment.
    • Convergence of Ideas.
    • More Capacity building Programs at Community Level.
    • Plan of Action, Technological Solutions for SAR in Highly Populated Urban/Developing Areas eg., an inferno in crowded buildings, shopping malls etc.,

Being Willing and Able to Response – Keys to Transforming Emergency Response

  • Investigate the concept that Emergency Responders (ER) might not respond when called to respond to disasters.
    • Society Expects that ER must be4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_35:
      • Trained proficiently.
      • Equipped sufficiently.
      • Respond effectively.
      • Perform above and beyond normal daily duties.
    • Legal – Ethical Obligations:
      • Bound by employment contracts.
      • Expectations on ER should be ‘reasonable’.
      • ‘Personal risk outweighs patient benefit’.
      • SAR of Hurricane Katrina 2005 exposed: Lack of effectiveness; Manpower shortage; ER placed family responsibilities before their duties.
  • Explore and Discuss reasons why ER might not respond.
    • ER Responses Myth:
      • Literature confirms that during disasters
        • Community can not rely on 100% ER Response.
        • ER : Become stranded; Become victims; Abandon Roles.
    • Research: Studies
      • Perception studies: Surveys/Hypothetical scenarios.
      • Behavioral studies: Retrospective real response.
      • Both studies confirmed that barriers will influence ER responding.
    • Barriers to responding
      • Willingness: The individuals decision to respond: Fears, Perceptions, Concerns.
      • Ability: The individuals capacity to respond: Availability, Means to respond.
    • Principal Barrier: Family4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_36
      • Willingness: Personal Fears, Family Fears, Type of Disasters.
      • Ability: Child Care, Elder Care, Pet Care.
    • Other Barriers
      • Willingness: Work Place Safety – Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), Infectious Diseases.
      • Ability: Transport, Illness.
  • Identify and Discuss support systems that would encourage ER to respond.
    • Research
      • Suggests that support systems curb absenteeism and support ER.
      • ER concerns for their family can outweigh their obligations to provide essential service during a disaster.
    • Personal
      • 97% of ER agree that personal plans are needed.
      • Realistically few have plans.
      • Plans: Decrease Stress, Details for Child Care/Elder Care/Pet Care.
      • Personal plans are key for work continuity.
    • Employer
      • Employer plays a vital role in their own organizational resilience.
      • ER expect employer to assist with family welfare during crisis. eg., NOPD, Texas Medical Centre.
      • Food and Shelter:
        • ER expect employer support: allays fears for families; improves ER reporting for duty, specific ER shelters (a political issue).
      • Transport:
        • ER expect employer support: vehicle pooling, picked up, given means of transportation.
      • Health and Safety:4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_37
        • ER expect employer support: Personal Protective Equipment, immunization prophylaxis.
    • Governmental
      • Emergency Planners/Government Officials.
      • Initiatives needed to support ER.
      • Encouraging employers to support.
  • Consider the extent we support ER to ensure local operational resilience during times of crisis.
    • Recommendations:
      • Support Systems are key to responding.
      • ER should have personal plans.
      • Employers should take more responsibility.
      • Supporting ER ensures less absenteeism.
      • Governmental Support Plans are needed.
      • Explore our local ER support systems.

Medical Support in Aviation Accident and Disaster

  • Doctors in the Field: An average professional officer considers the Military Doctor as an unwillingly tolerated non-combatant who
    • Takes sick call. 4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_38
    • Gives cathartic pills.
    • Makes transportation trouble.
    • Complicates tactical plans.
    • Causes the water to smell bad.
    • Of course is useful after an action, to remove the debris, but otherwise he is almost, if not quite, a positive nuisance.
  • Aviation Accidents
    • Rare but catastrophic.
    • Loss of lives.
    • Loss of hull.
    • Economic impact.
  • Aviation Disaster
    • An event negatively impacting 100 or more people, 10 or more deaths, or an appeal for external aid (International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies).
    • Exists when the number of casualties exceeds the capability to manage them (Martin, 1990).
    • Not all airline accidents lead to disaster.
  • Spectrum of Medical Support
    • Medical Support in SAR
      • Set-up varies.
      • Most rescue medics.
      • Some Doctors on board.
      • Some Second Line.
      • Small crash – primary retrieval.
      • Major crash – advance party.
    • Medical Support Pre – Hospital Care
      • Pre – Accident Plan.
      • Medical C4 (Command, Control, Communication, Coordination) + C3 (Cooperation, Cordial, Cool – Heads).
      • Safety.
      • Survivors.
      • Triage.
      • Stabilization.
      • Evacuation.
      • Non-Survivors.
      • Photos.
      • Tag.
    • Pattern of Injury4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_39
      • Nil.
      • Psychological Shock.
      • Multiple trauma.
      • Head and facial injuries.
      • Fractures.
      • Lacerations and wounds.
      • Burns & Smoke.
      • Inhalation.
      • Drowning & Hypothermia.
      • Exacerbation of pre-existing illness.
    • Primary Evacuation
      • Land or Air.
      • Never enough.
      • Send to appropriate facility.
      • Avoid clogging Critical Care Facilities if cases are Green.
      • Keep track of patients.
  • Lessons Learned from Air Show Disaster
    • Control & Communication
      • Communication Equipment.
      • Language Barrier.
    • Casualty Evacuation
      • Triage done by non-medics.
      • Expectant cases evacuated.
    • Shifting of Problem
      • All evacuated within 96 minutes.
      • Rapid shift of problems from Base.
      • Clog up local Hospitals.
  • Hospital Care
    • Activate Hospital.
    • Disaster Plan.
    • Re-Triage.
    • Emergency.
    • Non-Emergency.
    • Handling VIPs, relatives, curious onlookers, Press & Media.
    • Hand on training, training, training.
  • Forensics
    • Disaster Victim Identification.
      • Police.
      • Medical Forensics.
      • Dental Forensics.
    • Identification.
    • Cause of Death.
    • Critical – cockpit crew.
  • Identification.
    • Body: Scar, Mole, Old fracture, Body piercing, Tattoo, DNA, Dental.
    • Belongings: Id Tag, Personal belongings on body.
  • Accident Investigator4th_International_Search_Rescue_Conference_ISAR_2014_40
    • Human Factors – Part of AAI Team in most countries.
    • Knowledge of Aviation System, Aircraft System, Aviation Physiology and Aviation Psychology.
    • Visit Crash site.
    • Review medical records and safety training records.
    • Interview Survivors, Relatives & Work Mates.
    • Liaise with Forensics and Other Health Agencies.
  • Swiss Cheese or Cumulative Act Effects
    • Most accidents can be traced to 4 defensive layers.
    • Holes reflects weakness.
    • Alignment of holes causes accident.
    • Error is a CONSEQUENCE not cause of accident.
    • Look at system not individual.
  • Accident Investigation – Human Factors Analysis And Classification System (HFACS)
    • HFACS identifies the human causes of an accident.
    • Provides a tool to assist in the investigation process.
    • Targets training and prevention effort.
  • Stress Reaction
    • Expose to traumatic event.
    • Loss and grief: Denial, Anger, Depression, Acceptance (Elizabeth Kubler Ross).
    • Spouse & Relatives.
    • Resilience Training: Organization, Emergency Workers, Counsellors, Population culture.
  • Summary
    • High Reliability Organization (HRO).
    • Safety Culture.
    • Aviation accidents are rare.
    • Some accidents lead to disaster.
    • Medical support across the spectrum of aviation industry – Regulator > Accident Investigator Member.

First day session concluded with these three plenary sessions.

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